NPT FITTINGS (National Pipe Tapered Fittings)
National Pipe Tapered thread is also called national pipe thread or National Pipe Tapered Fuel (NPTF), which is a US technical standard to measure tapered threads on pipes, tubes or fittings whether tapered or straight. The tapered threads provide a leak-proof seal for hydraulic systems. They are also called MPT (Male Pipe Threads). The NPT threaded fittings are available in different materials such as iron, brass, carbon steel, and stainless steel.
The national pipe taper connection is dependent on thread deformation. It is recommended for single or permanent assembly applications because frequent assembly or disassembly may result in thread deformation and wear and tear.
The NPT Fittings that seal forming a metal-to-metal connection these fitting usually deforms during the process of installation for providing a seal. This creates a leakage after the connection is formed and requires disassembly and then reassembly and replacement of fittings. In a few cases, tightening may solve the problem but consequently, it may split the fitting or the port. Usually, split ports cannot be replaced or returned. For NPT threaded connections, it is recommended to use a liquid thread seal rather than a Teflon tape. Both the sealants are considered potential contaminants for the hydraulic piping system.
The NPTF is a dry seal thread. The male thread mates with the female thread and a seal are formed when the two are crushed together i.e. threads deformation. Teflon and pipe dope are commonly used when additional sealing is needed. Although this connection is widely used in fluid piping systems, the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) does not recommend it for hydraulic applications. Although the NPTF connector and BSPT connector are similar in appearance, the two are not interchangeable.
The NPT threads provide a seal when twisted as the edges of the threads squeezed together as compared to straight thread fittings in which threads only hold the components together but they do not provide the seal. The NPT fittings need to be properly lubricated or greased to decrease corrosion and make prospective disassembly easier.
They are commonly available in sizes including 1⁄8, 1⁄4,3⁄8, 1⁄2,3⁄4, 1, 1 1⁄4,1 1⁄2, and 2 inches. According to the ANSI and ASME the tapered size of NPT threads is the 1-inch diameter in 16 inches of length which is measured by the change in diameter of a threaded pipe over the distance of the thread. Larger sizes are not used commonly.
How to Measure for a leak-free seal?
If imperial system is followed, the number of threads per inch (TPI) is measured and the distance between each thread.
If the trial and error method is used, different gauges are used to determine the best fit. The tightest fitting is considered to be the best fitting. It is better if more number of threads are taken into account while determining the best fit. Hold the gauge against the light to identify gaps. This technique is easier to be followed in case of male threads than in the case of female threads.
After that measure the diameter of the thread with a caliper. In the case of male thread outer diameter is measure while in the case of female thread inner diameter is measured. It is recommended that while taking a male reading; hold the caliper at a slight angle for more accurate measure and for female reading; hold it perpendicular to the thread for more accurate measurements. These recommendations are made by the Hose Safety Institute.
Demerits of NPT Fittings:
Following are the demerits of using NPT fittings:
Merits of NPT Fittings:
Following are the merits of using NPT fittings:
How to Assemble National Pipe Tapered Threads?
There are four steps to follow to make sure that the national pipe taper threads are properly connected and sealed to provide a leak proof connection:
First STEP: The first step is to properly inspect the fitting and the port to make sure that both are free of toxins and impurities as well as any stresses or marks.
Second STEP:The second step involves applying the sealant whether liquid or Teflon on the male threads only. Do not wrap the Teflon tape more than one and a half turns in a clockwise direction. It is recommended to use the liquid sealant to be on a safer side.
Third STEP:The third is to twist the fitting into the port.
Fourth STEP: The fourth and final step involves using a wrench to further tighten the fitting properly.
It is important that once the connection is made do not try to make adjustments for better alignment or loosening the fittings because it will result in corrupting the seal and consequently lead to leakage.
The national pipe tapered threads were specifically designed for plumbing systems having a pressure of 60 psi, however, they are now used for hydraulic systems too. They are not considered suitable for high-pressure applications because they require a sealant to provide a secure seal. The NPT threaded connection is expected to leak as compared to the dry seal connection because it is not tightened properly or over-tightening resulted in cracking the female port. So, the tightening requirements differ depending on the type of sealant, assembly, disassembly, and reassembly.
JIC FITTINGS (Joint Industry Council Fittings)
JIC fittings stand for Joint Industry Council Fittings are one of the most commonly used compression or hydraulic fittings used in fuel delivery systems. They are also called 37 degrees JIC fitting or flare fitting. They are described by SAE J514 standard as a type of flare fitting that has a 37° JIC adapter fitting having a 37° cone seat on the female adapter and a 37° flare seating surface on the male adapter. This cone seat and flare allow for a complete mechanical seal between the male and female fitting. It is a mechanical connection that is made between the female cone seat and a male flare. Teflon tape or pipe thread sealant is not required.
The flare design is useful because it makes recurring or frequent tubing assembly and disassembly easier without the need of replacing the components or parts thereof. There are a variety of configurations available in the market, for instance, elbows, tees, cross and straight connectors, etc.
Flared tube fittings have significant performance characteristics that make it suitable to be used with thin to medium walled tubes. As the flared fittings provide secure and reliable seal, several high-pressure hydraulic systems applications have started using them as a replacement for pipe fittings. The SAE 37 degree is the standard fitting that is most commonly used in hydraulic systems. The SAE standard fittings are used with tubes having thick walls.
JIC fittings are almost similar to AN (Army-Navy) fitting but they cost less and have lower tolerance as compared to the AN (Army-Navy) fittings. It is often confused for AN (Army-Navy) fittings It is available in different materials including stainless steel, carbon steel, brass, and copper. JIC fitting and AN (Army-Navy) fitting is dimensionally the same, however, they are not interchangeable due to their different functionalities. JIC fittings are also confused with SAE 45 degree flared fitting because few sizes have identical threads. Therefore, it is always necessary to take extra care in order to make sure that they provide a secure and reliable seal that is leak proof.
How JIC Fittings Are Used?
The JIC fitting consists of mainly three pieces: the body, flare nut, and sleeve.
JIC fittings depend on the metal-to-metal connection between the fitting and the inner diameter of the flared tube in order to form a seal. When the fitting and the flared tubing are connected, they are backed by sleeve-fitting that spreads the compressed load of the nut during assembly. It is easy to identify an SAE tubing system because the sleeve bulges out from the back of the nut. It extends the tube while providing added support and decreasing the load on the fitting.
JIC fittings are considered an excellent choice for preventing leaks and can be used for higher pressure applications. JIC fittings are usually used for fuel or fluid supply applications. They are used for high-pressure applications up to 10,000 psi. Previously, JIC fittings used to correspond to the military specification which was superseded later by SAE. However, there are several system designs as well as designers that prefer the JIC fittings conventionally.
JIC fittings are used in several commercial and industrial applications such as aerospace industry, and fluid power industries, etc. In the aerospace industry, they are used in the manufacture of different types of aerospace and space exploration equipment. In a fluid power system, it is used to provide a port inline circuit. This circuit helps in providing the measurements and pressure readings when connected to the diagnostic device.
Merits of Using JIC Fittings:
Demerits of Using JIC Fittings
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